The Ocean County Compendium of  History
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Eddie Werner
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All Systems Failed:

The Murder of Eddie Werner and the Failure of the American Juvenile Safety Net

by Steven J. Baeli
December 1, 2002

Introduction

On the afternoon of September 27, 1997, eleven-year-old Eddie Werner set out into his quiet New Jersey neighborhood on a quest to sell candy and wrapping paper for a school fundraiser, never imagining that he would be murdered at the hands of a another boy just blocks from his home. Samuel Manzie, a fifteen-year old who suffered a life-long struggle with mental illness, strangled “Little Eddie” in a fifty-minute, psychosexual rage.  Afterward, Manzie took a picture of the crime, hid the body in a suitcase, and then moved it under the cover of darkness into the woods.  The juvenile safety net, a series of guidelines and laws created to protect America’s children from harm, had failed. Left in its wake was a murdered child, two devastated families, a torrent of questions, and the knowledge that Eddie Werner’s murder could have been prevented had the authorities charged with protecting America’s children from harm had simply done their job.

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Sam Manzie
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Manzie’s life had been one of turmoil and confusion, having been sexually molested at a young age.  The conflict between his burgeoning homosexuality and his father’s overbearing religious upbringing added weight to a growing mental condition, further exasperated by a lengthy sexual affair with twice-convicted pedophile, Stephen Simmons.  The culmination of Manzie’s torment came when detectives from the Monmouth County prosecutor’s office used the boy to entrap his offender, but by then he had become completely unstable.  Manzie had cried out for help, but the FBI ignored his complaint.  In addition, several mental healthcare professionals at Shoreline Behavioral Health Center disregarded his psychosexual fantasies and consistently misdiagnosed his illnesses.  He was bullied by the police with threats of jail if he chose not to cooperate, and finally forced to return home against his parent’s wishes by a juvenile court judge.  Ironically, the murder of Eddie Werner brought out the best and worst in people.  Strangers from around the world showed their support and offered their grief to the Werners while others held protests and made threats[1] against the Manzie family.  But neither the outpouring of love, nor the expression of rage has helped to allay the perplexity of the case.

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Stephen Simmons mugging for the cameras at his sentencing hearing
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Stephen Summons: The Pedophile

Born in 1953, Stephen Philip Simmons emigrated from London to the Jewish/Italian community of Canarsie, Brooklyn in 1959.  He enjoyed a typical childhood, participating in sports, attending summer camp, and playing stickball with future Guardian Angels founder, Curtis Sliwa.[2]  Nothing about his mannerisms suggested he that was homosexual or pedophilic. Others viewed him as an average,[3] heterosexual boy, whose only inclination towards being “gay” was perhaps a love off-Broadway music and a knack for sewing and knitting.[4]  Secretly, however, a teenaged-Simmons fantasized about boy actors such as Billy Mumy and Jay North, but did not then consider what he called “crushes” to be homosexual.  He never acted on his feelings, and he later believed that was the reason that he fixated on teenage males as an adult.[5] As a result, Simmons’ homosexual tendencies lay dormant throughout his adolescent years and he did not have sex of any kind until his early twenties.  In 1976, he married and had a son, but the marriage was short-lived.  Not long after his divorce, his legal troubles began, and it would take ten years after his second criminal sexual offense and a horrific murder before the law caught up with him again.

        Simmons’ first encounter with the law occurred in 1978 when he was charged with one count of attempted lewd and lascivious behavior in the presence of a child, and two counts of sexual battery for performing a sex act on a ten-year-old boy.[6]  The charges were levied in Daytona Beach, Florida, a state known for being tough on criminals, but Simmons avoided jail in a plea agreement in which the sexual battery charges were dropped.  The offense in Florida was the law’s first chance to keep Simmons away from children, but it chose instead to let him off with three years of probation.  In addition, adjudication was withheld, meaning that although there would be a record of the offense, no actual conviction would result.[7]  Simmons’ second audience with the court system took place six years later in Brooklyn, New York. The State charged that Simmons had had a three-year relationship with a thirteen-year-old boy, which began when the child was ten-years-old.[8]  According to Simmons, the boy was caught with marijuana after running away from home and “forced to turn [Simmons] in.”[9]  The end result was a two-year jail term for second-degree sodomy, which did not begin until May 26, 1986.  Simmons served nineteen months of his sentence at the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York and was paroled on December 17, 1987,[10] free again to pursue his pedophilic interests.
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         By 1996, Stephen Simmons was living in Holbrook, New York with Stephen Schemer, whom he “married” in a civil ceremony in 1991.[11]  His t-shirt printing business, which serviced both the general public and gay organizations, was falling apart, and his life seemed to be going nowhere.[12]   His business and life failures, by now, had caused severe depression and he often contemplated suicide, an act that Simmons claimed was “a waste for young people to do...[but felt was]…their right.”[13]  Simmons did have one savior, however, as the advent of the Internet offered his life a new meaning. It enabled him to freely interact with teenaged boys and offer them “counseling,”[14] which in turn gave the forty-three-year old “boylover”[15] a reason to live.

The Internet, as it is known today, was in its infancy in 1996.  Soon-to-be mega-conglomerate America Online (AOL), an Internet service used by both Manzie and Simmons, was struggling to find a foothold in the new technology.  One of its most popular services was chat rooms, where people around the world could talk to each other in a virtual community.  These chat rooms were categorized and tailored to the specific interests of its users, and offered an opportunity for people to meet others anonymously from the privacy and safety of their home computers.  Problems soon emerged, however, as pedophiles used their lascivious skills in teen areas to coerce children into meeting them for sexual liaisons.  In an effort to stave off such problems, AOL offered parental control tools that allowed users to limit their children’s access to the Internet,[16] but the children knew more about computer technology than their parents, rendering such control filters useless.  Stephen Simmons took full advantage of Internet ignorance and used it to his best advantage.  He patrolled gay teen chat rooms looking for boys to feed his desires.  In one such room, called “Boyz,”[17] he found more than he had bargained for.  On Wednesday, July 31, 1996, Stephen Simmons met Samuel Manzie, a boy who he described as his “albatross.”[18]

Sam Manzie: Victim and Murderer

Samuel A. Manzie was a perfect candidate for the mid-1990s Internet. He was young, shy and beginning to explore his sexuality, which was largely an attraction to other boys. Manzie understood the power of the Internet.  Like Stephen Simmons, he used it to find friends in gay teen chat rooms, play online games, and download pornography to feed his sexual curiosity. Manzie also built a webpage[19] as a pantheon to his favorite rock band, the Smashing Pumpkins, whose music eventually became the soundtrack to Manzie’s madness.  On a small corner of his website entitled, “Me, Myself, & I,” publicly offered a rare, inside peek at his private-self.  There, other users of the World Wide Web could find his picture, some of his screen names (including Sam82, which would figure prominently later in the case), a bit of his life history, information about his one off-line pastime, Q-Zar,[20] and a picture of his so-called cyber girlfriend, Laura, with whom he shared an obsession with the Smashing Pumpkins.  Manzie also published three compositions on his website,[21] including a revealing essay on friendship.[22]  To Sam Manzie, friendship would prove to be the linchpin of his life, and although he had few friends to speak of outside of his virtual world, in the end it would be the one characteristic of his complex psyche that remained strong and to which he held true.

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Sam Manzie's Internet girlfriend known only as "Laura"
(photo from Manzie's AOL website)
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Manzie was born in California on February 25, 1982 to Dolores and Nicholas Manzie.  The family, including Manzie’s sister Nicolette, moved first to South Carolina and then to Florida.  In 1987, they relocated to Monmouth County, New Jersey, and then finally settled in Jackson Township.[23]  Nicholas Manzie was a staunch Catholic who foisted his beliefs upon his children.  They lived a middle class lifestyle, but Nicholas’ insistence that his children attend parochial school kept them in debt.[24]  As a result, the Manzies supplemented their income by hosting gambling junkets to Atlantic City to offset tuition costs, which often left Sam home alone.  The few times that Manzie joined his parents on the junkets, he was described as “helpful to his parents”[25] by trip attendees.  By all outward appearances, the Manzies were the perfect family with little or no problems to speak of, but privately there was turbulence, and by 1996 it had come to the fore.

There had been early signs that Manzie might be mentally disturbed. The first episode occurred in pre-school when he brought a knife to class.[26]  Manzie later hinted that he had been molested by a worker there, but to date he has not spoken publicly about it.  Whether the knife incident was a reaction to his molestation, no one can say, but it was certainly a sign of things to come. Manzie’s kindergarten teacher reported that he was “violent, sad and angry.”[27]  According to his attorney, Michael Critchley, Manzie’s first grade teacher at Holy Family School in Lakewood, New Jersey, reported, “some situation that required counseling,”[28] but he was examined and quickly judged to be “fine.”[29]  But things were not really fine with Manzie, and although there were no other identifiable episodes until he began to reach puberty, his mental condition was secretly reaching critical mass, setting the stage for what was to come.

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Sam Manzie & Stephen Simmons at the Monmouth County Courthouse
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The sexual liaisons between Manzie, then fourteen, and Stephen Simmons, forty-two, began in August of 1996 after Manzie disappeared for two days.  Nicholas had dropped Sam off at the Freehold Raceway Mall, but he did not know that Sam had made arrangements to meet an older man for sex.  The pair took in a movie, where they fondled each other, and then gave each other oral sex in the woods near the mall after the movie let out. Manzie then persuaded Simmons to bring him to home, where he spent the night and the better part of the next day. Manzie and Simmons met several times over the next few months, having sex each time, and on one occasion they took pictures of each other in different states of undress and arousal.  Manzie became increasingly distant and violent at home during that period of time, and his school grades had fallen drastically.  The Manzies had begun to see a side of their son they did not recognize, and they could no longer chalk his actions up to simple teen angst.

Manzie’s high school life at the Christian Brothers Academy (CBA) was a mixture of torment and academic excellence.  Rocky Novellino, a schoolmate, recalled that Manzie had earned the top grade in their honors biology class, but kept to himself.  Dann Morrison, who rode the school bus with Manzie, also remembered him as being the quite-type, speaking only to the driver.[30]  Some students badgered Manzie, calling him names such as “Manzie the Panzie,”[31] while others took him for a loner best left alone.  The students, of course, did not know that Manzie had been having a sexual relationship with an older man, and their homophobic remarks were probably nothing more than assumptions on their part. But officials at CBA knew of Manzie’s sexual preference after he had written a letter offering to give a male teacher oral sex.[32] The letter prompted officials at CBA to remove Manzie from school until he received psychiatric counseling.  The school denied that action, suggesting that Manzie had simply stopped attending school without explanation in his freshman year,[33] but Critchley later confirmed CBA’s conditional expulsion in a court hearing.[34]

 
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                                             Shoreline Behavioral Center
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        After Manzie was asked to leave school, the Manzies sought the advice of psychiatrist, Dr. Robert Jarmon in July of 1997.  Jarmon quickly realized that Manzie’s problems were beyond the scope of his expertise and suggested he be enrolled in an intensive therapy day-program at Shoreline Behavioral Center in Toms River, New Jersey.[35]  But before the Manzies could act, the situation at home had escalated, and the first incident that caused the involvement of the police and Kimball Medical Center’s Psychiatric Emergency Screening Services (PESS) occurred.  According to Nicholas Manzie, he and Sam had had an argument, which resulted in Sam throwing the television remote at his father, denting the wall. Nicholas called 911, and Sam was taken to PESS, where he spent the night.[36]  The incident prompted the Manzies to enroll their son in the outpatient program at Shoreline on August 21, 1997.[37]  There, Manzie began to open up and speak about his life-long problems, but the professionals there seemingly failed to see what should have been obvious to the trained eye.

         Dr. Jocelyn E. Fablia was the first psychiatrist to see Manzie at Shoreline.[38] At that August 22, 1997 session, Manzie told her about his affair with Stephen Simmons, but Fablia did not immediately report the crime to the police as was legally required.  Six days later. Dr. Jeffrey Greenbarg had a session with Manzie, who told the doctor that in the summer of 1995 at age thirteen, while babysitting a three-year old boy, he molested the child and forced him to drink cleaning fluid.[39]  At the end of the session, Greenbarg diagnosed Manzie as having Intermittent Explosive Disorder.[40] On September 5, 1997, Manzie confided to Dr. Peter Brancato, Jr. that he collected hardcore pornography, that he was attracted to younger children, and that he secretly desired to kill a young boy.[41]  Manzie also recounted to Brancato that he had lit fires in his room, had hurt the family dog by throwing it down the stairs,[42] had sexual fantasies involving eight-year old boys while at summer camp,[43] and, as an eighth-grader at CBA, had become infatuated with a fourth grade student for whom he often waited in the boy’s lavatory.[44] Brancato’s reaction to Manzie’s statements was a diagnosis of Major Depression.[45] Days later, Brancato suddenly amended his diagnosis to Depression and Identity Disorder.[46]

By all accounts, the therapists at Shoreline had enough information to seek a more aggressive therapy for Manzie, yet they kept him in the day-program instead of admitting him to the hospital.  Subsequently, they ignored, or perhaps disbelieved Manzie’s cleaning fluid admission and desire to kill, and bounced him from doctor to doctor.  One must wonder how the doctors at Shoreline could have missed the obvious signs of severe mental dysfunction. Dr. John Douglas, considered the leading criminal profiling expert,[47] pointed out what he called the “homicidal triad” (setting fires, hurting animals and bedwetting, all of which Manzie did), as a “precursor to adult violence.”[48]  The homicidal triad was well known within the psychiatric community, since criminal profiling is based on psychiatric consistencies, but the doctors at Shoreline failed to put the evidence together, and the end result was the death of an innocent boy.

Manzie, Simmons and the Failure of the Legal System

During Manzie’s time in the Shoreline outpatient program, detectives from the Monmouth County Prosecutor’s office had begun building a case against Simmons.  Their investigation was initiated after a doctor at Shoreline finally reported the affair between the youth and the pedophile, although it was not the first time the law had been notified that Simmons was having sex with underage boys.  In March of 1997, Manzie had inadvertently initiated contact with Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) via an email he sent to Debbie Mahoney, founder of an Internet child abuse protection group known as Safeguarding Our Children, who passed it along to the FBI.[49]  The anonymous email was from Sam82@aol.com, and it explained that he was a teenage boy in a sexual relationship with a forty-three-year-old man.  The author said that he thought the relationship was wrong and wanted to get out of it but did not know how.  Mahoney faxed the email to the Baltimore office of the FBI and followed it up a week later with a phone call to agent Larry K. Foust, but he refused to comment on the case.[50] In yet another example of the failure of the juvenile safety net, the FBI never did investigate Manzie’s charges against Simmons.

By early September of 1997, the detectives investigating Simmons’ illegal activities had begun to collect a large amount of evidence against the pedophile.  Initially, Manzie had willingly helped the police by showing them where the sexual meetings had taken place, gave them a full account of his encounters with Simmons, and even agreed to a sting operation by recording phone conversations to entrap the pedophile.  But Manzie suddenly became agitated and started to back off, frustrating the detectives and causing them to put pressure on him. Manzie later claimed in court testimony that the police were so relentless in their pursuit of Simmons that they threatened him to put him in jail if he did not cooperate.[51]  The sting operation ended when Manzie destroyed the recording equipment and alerted Simmons that the police were on to him.  The motivation behind the destruction of the equipment was perhaps fueled by Manzie’s enrollment rejection at Monsignor Donovan High School earlier that day,[52] adding further stress to an already explosive state of affairs.  By that evening Manzie had again become threatening and violent, causing the Manzies to send Sam back to the PESS unit, which placed him in Harbor House, a private shelter for trouble teens (0302-97).

The Manzie family was at wits end and Dolores Manzie was not about to let Sam back into the house without first being committed to a psychiatric hospital and examined.  Her son was out of control and dangerous, and she wanted answers. Keeping to her word, Dolores refused to pick Sam up when the PESS unit was ready to discharge him the next day. Frustrated, officials at PESS called Paula H. Jacques, an officer in the Ocean County Family Intake Crisis Unit,[53] who agreed to intervene, and scheduled the Manzies for a court hearing before a juvenile court judge to resolve the matter.  The Manzies were relieved at that action, believing that they had finally found someone who would listen to them and offer some kind of help, but instead of salvation, they found an uninformed judge who heard only what he wanted to hear.

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Judge James Citta was a self-described, no-nonsense type of judge[54] who believed he could correct a bad situation by simply ordering a child into submission.  In his meeting with the Manzies, Citta listened to both Nicholas and Dolores, who explained the situation with Sam, Simmons and the Monmouth County prosecutor. Citta questioned why Manzie was not in school and admonished the Manzies for not considering public school.  The judge then turned his attention to Sam and asked him if he was “mentally...disabled...a psychopath...or retarded,” to which Manzie answered no.  Citta then launched into a diatribe, explaining that he had “little tolerance for young people who [did not] do the right thing,”[55] and that Manzie just had “some adjustment problems.”[56]  With that, Citta called Manzie “a fine young man”[57] and ordered the Manzies return home with their son and see that he “[did] the right thing,”[58] adding that Manzie “was a good boy who just needed to behave himself.”[59]  Feeling somewhat confused at what had transpired, the Manzies did as they were told, and three days later Eddie Werner knocked on their door.

Eddie Werner: The Innocent

Edward Peter Werner, Jr., the only true innocent victim of this case, was born on Christmas day in 1985. His family hailed from Staten Island, New York and later moved to Jackson Township less than a mile from the Manzies.  Eddie, along with his father, Edward Sr., mother, Valerie Branciforte, sisters Kellie and Laura, and younger brother Thomas, lived a respectable, middle-class life in a quiet neighborhood, never thinking for a moment that danger was near.  The Werners were hard working people, Edward, Sr. was a lawyer,[60] Valerie an employee at Wal-Mart,[61] and the children were studious and well behaved. Eddie, Jr. was especially bright and it seemed everyone around him knew that he would someday be a success.

There is not much that can be said about a boy just eleven-years-old, except to say that Eddie Werner, Jr. was likely to achieve any ambition he set his heart to.  He loved school and practiced his religion faithfully,[62] and unlike Sam Manzie, Eddie was outgoing, well liked and had many friends. “Little Eddie,” as he was sometimes called, suffered a mild case of Tourette’s syndrome,[63] which mostly went unnoticed, and certainly did not hinder him from accomplishing his goal to become the top fundraising salesmen at the Christa McAuliffe Middle School.[64]  He was consistent in his sales, persistent in his sales pitch, and had a naturally “infectious smile”[65] that could melt the hearts of his toughest customers.  The prize that he had set his sights on that year was a set of walkie-talkies, which the family could easily afford, but Eddie was taught the value of earning one’s own way and he had practiced that lesson with abandon.  Given the opportunity, he would sell enough wrapping paper and candy for the school PTA and win his prize.


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Valerie & Edward Manzie, Sr. (left) and Delores & Nicholas Manzie (right)
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The annual Parent-Teachers Association fundraiser at McAuliffe middle school kicked off on Monday, September 22, 1997, and was slated to run through to the end of October.  Each year students were asked to go out and sell items to help their school.  Such fundraisers were necessary to fill the gaps when taxes and government monies fell short of the school’s needs. Werner was a top seller at his school every year,[66] and within four days of the new promotion he had already sold well over $200.00 worth of fundraising goods.  His death later raised the question of using prize enticements and door-to-door sales in school fundraisers.  The murder elicited public outrage and a plethora of legislation banning such practices for students.  Months prior to the murder, Governor Christine Todd Whitman signed Joan’s Law,[67] which should have put the McAuliffe PTA on notice when planning its events, but the message did not seem to get through.  The PTA also ignored important guidelines set by the New Jersey chapter of the PTA according to organization president, Maryann Kolbeck,[68] which warned against using children to raise funds.[69]  Stephanie Yusko, Jackson Township’s school spokeswomen, also put the onus on the McAuliffe PTA, claiming that “school officials have always discouraged students from going to strangers’ homes to sell items.”  But no amount of deflection of guilt or finger pointing could ease the Werner’s pain.  Their oldest child was gone. To them, that was the only thing that mattered, and they would be reminded of that fact every Christmas day for the rest of their lives.

        On the morning of September 27, 1997, Edward Werner had run over Eddie’s bicycle in the driveway.  He had warned his son repeatedly about leaving the bike on the ground behind the car, but it was just one of those habits that Eddie seemed unable to break.  After a stem admonishment, Eddie and his father spent the rest of the day together getting the bike fixed and having lunch.  But Edward could never stay angry with his son, and by the time they returned home they had made up.  Anxious to hit the streets, Werner gathered up his sales kit, including over two-hundred dollars in cash, and headed out into the neighborhood around three o’clock that afternoon dressed in black and ready to earn his prize.  He solicited Sonya Floystrop around four o’clock,[70] and was last seen by Shawn McCarty about five-thirty on Wisconsin Drive,[71] one street over from Iowa Court where the Manzies lived. Somewhere along his route Werner had called his friend Brittany Catalano from another friend’s house, informing her that he would stop by soon, but he never arrived.[72]

Leaving their son home alone, Dolores and Nicholas Manzie had left at five o’clock Saturday morning to run one of their bus trips to Atlantic City.  The Manzie’s later received much criticism for leaving Sam unattended after the PESS incident and family court hearing three days before, but they said their son had been “docile,”[73] and in an interview with Barbara Walters described the days that followed the breakdown as “the best days with Sam in years.”[74] The Manzies defended their decision to leave Sam home alone based upon what they were told by the authorities.  After all, every mental healthcare doctor, the Monmouth County Prosecutor’s Office, Ocean County Family Crisis Intake and Judge James Citta had all ensured the Manzies that their son was not a danger.[75]  And so they left for work, somewhat weary, but confident the authorities knew what they were talking about.

No one knows what Manzie did throughout day prior to the murder, which occurred at approximately five forty-five Saturday afternoon.  According to his own testimony, Manzie sat on his front porch watching Werner as he went from house to house and “felt a rush”[76] as he walked by.  Manzie claimed he was attracted to Werner by his black clothes and sneakers and thought to himself that he “could have that kid.”[77]  Eventually, Werner approached Manzie and asked him if he would like to purchase some of his wares, but Manzie declined. Werner thanked him and turned to leave, but Manzie suddenly changed his mind and invited the boy into the house, claiming he needed to find his glasses. Werner hesitated, but followed behind Manzie.  As soon as they were over the threshold, Manzie slammed and locked the door.[78]  Realizing he was in danger, Werner began to cry. Manzie ignored his victim’s pleas, grabbed him by the arm and dragged him up the stairs to his bedroom.  There, he put on a Smashing Pumpkins compact disc and attempted to give Werner oral sex, to which he did not respond.[79]  Manzie became angry, ordered Werner to strip and get face-down on the floor with his eyes closed.  As he lay atop of his victim, Manzie reached out for a Sega Genesis video machine, but it was out of his reach.  He instead found an alarm clock and used its cord to strangle Eddie Werner for a period of about fifty minutes.  His excitement spent, Manzie took a Polaroid picture of the dead boy and hid it in his room.  He searched the house for a suitcase, stuffed Werner into it, and then hid it behind a neighbor’s house across the street. Manzie patiently waited until sometime after midnight before moving the body into the woods and dumped it alongside a creek. Manzie then returned home with the suitcase and calmly went to bed.[80]

By seven o’clock Saturday evening, the Werners had begun to worry about their son and called several friends in an attempt to locate him.  While Edward Sr. was home making the calls, Valerie and her mother, Lillian Branciforte combed the neighborhood.  The police were called at eleven o’clock, but a full search team was not engaged until the next morning, giving Manzie plenty of time to hide the body.  Manzie’s parents did not arrive home until ten o’clock.  They went straight to bed and said they heard nothing unusual during the night.  In the meantime, the Jackson Township Board of Education temporarily halted all fundraising efforts;[81] an unusual move, since Werner had only been missing a few hours at the time of the board’s decision.  The search for Eddie Werner went on for two days,[82] involved hundreds of people a massive amount of resources, including family, friends, local and state police, the Ocean County Sheriffs department, multiple K-9 units and fire departments, police divers, a search plane and the NJ State Police helicopter.[83]  The search was a sign of a community that came together in a time of crisis, and it later would prove its dedication to the Werners time and again with vigils, dedications and moral support.[84]

While the community searched for Werner, the police canvassed the neighborhood going door-to-door in an effort to retrace the missing boy’s steps.  They eventually attempted to question Manzie, but he refused to speak to them.[85]  His actions raised some concern, but the detectives simply noted it and moved on in the interest of time.  Manzie’s mother also questioned her son and received the same sort of non-responsive indifference.  Although she did not suspect her son right away, she did recall in an interview with Oprah Winfrey that she had a recurring “feeling,”[86] and by the time Werner’s body was found she “was pretty sure [Sam] was involved.”[87]  Eddie Werner’s body was found on the evening of Monday, September 29, 1997, the same day as his brother’s birthday.  Earlier that day, Manzie had discarded Werner’s clothes in a dumpster behind Shoreline, accusations of malpractice were being leveled at the McAuliffe PTA, and a Monmouth County detective had informed the Ocean County police about their involvement with Manzie and Simmons.  The following day the results of Werner’s autopsy claimed ligature strangulation as the cause of death, and showed evidence that the boy had been struck repeatedly on the head and revealed a footprint on his back, which would later be matched to Manzie’s sneaker.[88]  By the time of Manzie’s arrest on Wednesday, radio stations in the tri-state area were talking non-stop about the murder,[89] and the press wires were humming with what was to become one of the top news stories around the world for days to come.  The Werners were in seclusion, the Manzies were fending off death threats, and both Stephen Simmons and Manzie were in jail.  Always the enigma, Samuel Manzie was now a victim in one county, and a defendant in another.

Conclusion

When a child is murdered, society often feels a need to understand how such an atrocity could occur, and to do that one must scrutinize the history of the case and ferret out the facts surrounding the situation.  What was unique about the Werner murder was the plethora of warning signs that should have given notice to those trained in protecting America’s children. Stephen Simmons, perhaps the luckiest pedophile ever to escape the grasp of the law, had already walked on his first sexual offense in Florida, and spent less than two years in prison for his second offense by the time he had met Manzie.   Pedophiles are known to be recidivists, and are generally believed to be unable to correct their behavior.[90]  Simmons proved to fit that profile since he continued to display his predilections long after he served time in jail.  When Manzie refused to testify for the prosecution in Simmons’ trial,[91] the judge was forced to reduce Simmons’ sentence to five years with three years time-served[92]  The State of New Jersey has since taken steps to correct the problem of recidivism, passing the New Jersey Sexually Violent Predator Act,[93] which can civilly commit and detain a prisoner indefinitely beyond his or her ordered sentence if it is proven they are mentally disturbed or still a danger to the community. Feeling that he should not walk again, the State applied the Predator Act at the end of Simmons’ sentence in 2002 and committed him accordingly.[94]

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The FBI, which set up a program called “Innocent Images,”[95] specifically designed to protect children against Internet predators, was the first direct link in the legal chain to fail Eddie Werner. Had they investigated Simmons after receiving information about his illicit practices, they would have discovered Manzie’s mental deficiencies, and could have circumvented his need to kill a young boy.  For their part, the Monmouth County Prosecutor’s office did not follow state mandated guidelines when using a minor to entrap its offender.  The New Jersey State Attorney General’s Office had released those guidelines in August of 1997,[96] which specifically stated that the mental condition of all minors used as informants must be taken under consideration, and that a therapist be employed to monitor the situation.  But the detectives chose to ignore procedure in their zeal to capture Simmons, and pushed Manzie’s mental limits with threats of jail if he did not cooperate.  Had they followed the rules set forth by the Attorney General, the employed therapist would have been privy to Manzie’s mental health records and could have stepped in to stop the sting operation before Manzie went out of control.  The detectives also failed to inform the Manzies exactly what had occurred between their son and Simmons. They later explained that Manzie had begged them not to tell his parents, and that they felt it was more important to gain his trust and confidence.

The final failure of the legal system was Judge James Citta, who should have taken the time to better understand the Manzies’ plea that their son be committed to a mental institution before he could harm someone.  Citta instead treated the case as a nuisance, believing that the Manzies were attempting to shirk their parental duties by having the law do their job.  Citta did not escape his decision lightly, however, since his actions came up at his tenure hearing after the murder.  Although many people, including the Manzies, spoke at the tenure hearings in an attempt to have the judge removed from the bench, Citta weathered the criticism and was awarded a lifetime appointment to the New Jersey courts.[97]

Playing a smaller, yet still significant part in the murder of Eddie Werner, was the Christa McAuliffe PTA, which, in direct contrast to national and state PTA regulations, failed to inform the parents of their students that allowing children to go door-to-door was not allowed. Had they done so, the Werners could have forced their son to employ a different selling technique, and Eddie Werner might never have met Samuel Manzie. Its efforts to fill a tax void blinded it to the reality that using children in fundraising can be inherently dangerous to its student’s lives.

            The role that the mental health community played in the death of Eddie Werner was directly related to its failure to recognize that Samuel Manzie was a danger to both himself and to the public, and it should have taken action to commit its patient to an inpatient program long before he had the opportunity to kill.  The therapist who analyzed Manzie after the kindergarten knife incident and reports of violence and anger from his teachers should have recognized the early signs of potential sexual child abuse and/or mental deficiencies and acted on the evidence accordingly. The doctors at Shoreline Behavioral Center also failed to see that Manzie was unstable, even after he admitted his psychosexual fantasies and past transgressions.  Their constant misdiagnoses did nothing more than confuse their patient and his parents, and allowed Manzie to realize his desires.  Their actions have since brought lawsuits from both the Werners and the Manzies,[98] and may have weakened the confidence of the public where psychiatric medicine is concerned.

            The failure of the American juvenile safety net in the murder of Eddie Werner, and in the assistance of a very disturbed Samuel Manzie, can be seen on many levels, and it is important that we as a society study that case to prevent such an occurrence from happening again.  We should also consider a law, perhaps called “Eddie’s Law,” which lays out strict guidelines when using minors in sting operations, and which would insure that the mental and physical health of those minors is monitored by a third-party mental healthcare professional team.  Werner’s murder was tragic, but not preventable, and we would all share the blame should such a crime happen again in our lifetime.

Endnotes

[1] Denise Buffa, "Prosecutor: Lock Up Eddie's Teen Killer Forever," New York Post. 8 October 1997, p. 8.

[2] Perry Brass, “Steve Simmons: The Sam Manzie Case,” <http://www.gaytoday.badpuppy.com/garchive/interview/040599in.htm> (November 1997).

[3] For an insight to American attitudes on homosexuality see, Fred Fejes, “Murder, Perversion, and Moral Panic: The 1954 Media Campaign Against Miami’s Homosexuals and the Discourse of Civic Betterment,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 9 (1999): 305-347.

[4] Perry Brass, “Steve Simmons: The Sam Manzie Case,” <http://www.gaytoday.badpuppy.com/garchive/interview/040599in.htm> (November 1997).

[5] Ibid.

[6] Elaine Silvestrini, “Child Molester Faces Nine Charges, Judge Boosts Bail to $225,000.00,” Asbury Park Press, 8 October 1997, p. 1; Bill Jensen, “A Man Among Boys, Long Island Voice, 9 December 1999, p. 1.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] New York State Department of Corrections, New York State Sex Offender Registry of Registerable Offenses. May 21. 1986.

[11] Bill Jensen, "A Man Among Boys," Long Island Voice, 9 December 1999, p. 1; New York State Department of Corrections, New York State Sex Offender Registry of Registrable Offenses. May 21, 1986.

[12] Perry Brass, "Steve Simmons: The Sam Manzie Case," <http://www.gaytoday.badpuppy.com/garchive/interview/040599in.htm> (November 1997).

[13] Perry Brass, "Steve Simmons: The Sam Manzie Case," <http://www.gaytoday.badpuppy.com/garchive/interview/040599in.htm> (November 1997).

[14] Perry Brass, "Steve Simmons: The Sam Manzie Case," <http://www.gaytoday.badpuppy.com/garchive/interview/040599in.htm> (November 1997).

[15] The term "boylover" is used by male pedophiles and pederasts who enjoy having relationships with minor boys. For an in-depth look at pederasty and pedophilia see, Shawn Michael Dove, The Hidden Monster: Pedophilia (New York: First Books Library, 2003); Amy Hammil-Zabin, Conversations with a Pedophile: In the Interest of Our Children (New York: Barricade Books, 2003); Jon Silverman, Innocence Betrayed: Paedophilia, the Media, and Society (Los Angles: Polity Press, 2003); Edward Brongersma, Male Intergenerational Intimacy: Historical, Socio-PsychologicaL and Legal Perspectives (Toronto: Harrington Park Press, 1993); William E. Prendergast, Treating Sex Offenders: A Guide to Clinical Practice with Adults, Clerics, Children, and Adolescents (New York: Haworth Press, 2003). For scholarly journal articles on pedophilia and pederasty see, Kevin Ohi. "Molestation 101: Child Abuse, Homophobia, and the Boys of St. Vincent." GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 6 (2000): 12; Stephen Robertson. "Separating the Men from the Boys: Masculinity, Psychosexual Development, and Sex Crime in the United States 1930s-1960s." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 56 (2001): 28-32; Stephen Robertson. "Age of Consent Law and the Making of Modem Childhood in NYC 1886-1921." The Journal of Social Science; Charles Petersen, "Another Frontier: Law and Sexuality in the American West," Journal of the West 4 (2002): 212-237.. For government information see, New Jersey Governor's Office. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Professional's Guide to Identification, Reporting, Investigation and Treatment. Trenton, N.J.: The Task Force, 1988; Office of the New Jersey Attorney General. Child Abuse and Neglect in New Jersey 1997-1998: The New Jersey Division of Youth and Family Services. Trenton, N.J.: The Division of Youth and Family.

[16] Kara Swisher, How Steve Case Beat Bill Gates, Nailed the Netheads, and Made Millions in the War for the Web (Toronto: Random House, 1999), p. 218.

[17] Steven Levy, "Did the Net Kill Eddie," Newsweek Magazine, 13 October 1997, volume 130, issue 15, p. 63.

[18] Nina Burleigh, "The Killer Next Door: The Murder of Eddie Werner in Jackson Township, N.J.," The New York Journal 30 (1997): 52-57.

[19] AOL immediately pulled Manzie's website from their server after the murder at the request of the police, and there is currently only one known full version of it on the Internet, although it is largely incomplete. This author was able to reconstruct the website, but has chosen not to publish it because of the delicate nature of the case, and out of respect for those involved.

[20] Q-Zar was a laser tag game Manzie played at Great Adventure amusement park just a few miles from his home.

[21] Within his website, Manzie included three short essays. The first essay was a piece of innocuous writing, which pitted fictional characters Beavis and Butthead against each other in a fight. In the second, Manzie espoused his "conservative" belief that the Christian Brothers Academy should not be co-ed. The third involved personal introspection. See endnote 14 for an excerpt of Manzie's introspective essay.

[22] The most introspective item on the page was an essay entitled. True Friendships Are Forever, which Manzie won first place in the Catholic Daughters of America Contest. It was a telling piece that, in hindsight, showed Manzie's tenacity toward his feelings:

A true friend is hard to find, but once you have found one, the friendship can last forever. There are certain qualities that true friends have. A true friend helps you out when you are in trouble, sticks by you through hard times, and is someone you can count on to tell you the truth.. .True friendships are a very great and valuable thing to have, and if both friends work together, the friendship can last a long time.

[23] Nina Burleigh, "The Killer Next Door: The Murder of Eddie Werner in Jackson Township, N.J.," The New York Journal 30 (1997): 52-57.

[24] The tuition for one child to attend the Christian Brothers Academy in 1996 was $6500.00 per year and schooling two children in this manner meant a heavy burden for the Manzies, even on gross a $1200.00 a week salary. Furthering encumbering their financial situation, an auto accident kept Nicholas Manzie out of work for close to a year, during which time he was prescribed pain medications and a regiment of physical therapy. See Nina Burleigh, "The Killer Next Door: The Murder of Eddie Werner in Jackson Township, N.J.," The New York Journal 30 (1997): 52-57.

[25] Elaine Silvestrini and Terri Somers, "He Foiled Police Bid to Trap Adult Suspect," Asbury Park Press. 3 October 1997, p. 1.

[26] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie's Lonely, Violent Childhood," Asbury Park Press. 18 April 1999, p. 1

[27] Carol Gorga Williams, "Werners Sue Manzies; Counselors Over Slain Son," Asbury Park Press. 23 September 1999, p 1.

[28] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie's Lonely, Violent Childhood," Asbury Park Press. 18 April 1999, p. 1

[29] At age six, Manzie was diagnosed as hyperactive with "overall atmosphere of sadness." After a short time in counseling, Manzie was found to be fine and there were no more instances involving mental health care professionals until his first year in high school according to Critchley. See Nina Burleigh, "The Killer Next Door: The Murder of Eddie Werner in Jackson Township, N.J.," The New York Journal 30 (1997): 52-57.

[30] Laurence Arnold and Terri Somers, "Teen Offered Look at Himself on a Web Page," The Bergen Record. 2 October 1997, p. 1.

[31] Brian J. Karem, Innocent Victims (New York: Kensington Publishing Corp., 2001), p. 71.

[32] Ibid, p. 72.

[33] Laurence Arnold and Terri Somers, "Teen Offered Look at Himself on a Web Page," The Bergen Record. 2 October 1997, p. l.

[34] Nina Burleigh, "The Killer Next Door: The Murder of Eddie Werner in Jackson Township, N.J.," The New York Journal 30 (1997): 52-57.

[35] Carol Gorga Williams, "Convicted Sam Manzie's Killer Parents Sue Doctors," Asbury Park Press. 1 October 1999, p. 1.

[36] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie's Lonely, Violent Childhood," Asbury Park Press. 18 April 1999, p. l.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Carol Gorga Williams, "Werners Sue Manzies; Counselors Over Slain Son," Asbury Park Press, 23 September 1999, p. 1. For a medical definition of Intermittent Explosive Disorder see, American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., 1994.

[39] Steve Chambers, Brian T. Murray and Josh Margolin, "Angry Mother of Defendant Is Taken From Court," Star-Ledger. 15 April 1999, p. 1.

[40] Carol Gorga Williams, "Werners Sue Manzies; Counselors Over Slain Son," Asbury Park Press, 23 September 1999, p. 1; For a medical definition of Depression and Identity Disorder see, "American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th ed., 1994.

[41] Steve Chambers, Brian T. Murray and Josh Margolin, "Angry Mother of Defendant Is Taken From Court," Star-Ledger. 15 April 1999, p. 1.

[42] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie Diagnosis Focus of Lawsuit," Asbury Park Press, 1 October 1999, p. 1.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Steve Chambers, Brian T. Murray and Josh Margolin, "Angry Mother of Defendant Is Taken From Court," Star-Ledger. 15 April 1999, p. 1.

[45] Carol Gorga Williams, "Werners Sue Manzies; Counselors Over Slain Son," Asbury Park Press, 23 September 1999, p. 1; For a medical definition of Depression see, "American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th ed., 1994.

[46] Carol Gorga Williams, "Werners Sue Manzies; Counselors Over Slain Son," Asbury Park Press, 23 September 1999, p. 1; For a medical definition of Depression and Anxiety Disorder see, "American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th ed., 1994.

[47] John Douglas, "John Douglas' Professional Background," <http://www.apbnews.com/crimesolvers/douglas/bio.html> (2000).

[48] John Douglas, "Battered Barbie an Ominous Sign," <http://www.apbnews.com/crimesolvers/douglas/index.html> (30 May 2000).

[49] Cori Anne Natoli, "Slaying Suspect Sought Help From Child Abuse Group," Asbury Park Press. 5 April 1998, p. 1.

[50] Ibid.

[51] This author witnessed this testimony at the sentencing hearing for Stephen Simmons.

[52] Laurence Arnold and Terri Somers, "Suspect Described as Quite Loner, Victim of an Internet Pedophile," Asbury Park Press. 2 October 1997, p. 1.

[53] Robert Hanley, "Slain Boy's Parents Consider Suing Officials," New York Times. 12 December 1997, p. 42.

[54] Carol Gorga Williams, "At Hearing Troubled Teen's Future in the Balance Commitment Hearing," Asbury Park Press. 5 October 1997, p. 1.

[55] Ibid.

[56] Ibid.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Stephanie Hoo, "Why Judge Failed to Commit Troubled Teen," Asbury Park Press. 5 October 1997, p. 1.

[60] Lynn Ducey, "Radio Show Highlights Political Issues," Asbury Park Press, 17 September 2000, p. 1.

[61] Cori Anne Natoli, "For Werner's, a Year Filled with Heartache," Asbury Park Press. 27 September 1998, p. 1.

[62] Cori Anne Natoli, "For Werner's, a Year Filled with Heartache," Asbury Park Press. 27 September 1998, p. 1. 

[63] Warren Woodberry, Jr., "Massive Search For Missing Boy," Asbury Park Press, 29 September 1997, p. 1. For more information about Tourette's syndrome see, Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children with Tourette's Syndrome,  <http://www.tourettes.org>; Tourette's Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions, <http://www.tourettes.com>.

[64] Steven Levy, "Did the Net Kill Eddie: A Murder Raises Questions about Whether We're Doing Enough to Protect Kids Online," Newsweek. 13 October 1997.

[65] Cori Anne Natoli, "For Werner's, a Year Filled with Heartache," Asbury Park Press. 27 September 1998, p. 1.

[66] Warren Woodberry, Jr., "Massive Search for Missing Boy," Asbury Park Press, 29 September 1997, p. 1.

[67] In April of 1997, New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman signed Joan's Law, which made mandatory a life sentence for those convicted of the murder and sexual assault of victims under the age of fourteen. The law stemmed from the 1974 murder of seven-year old Joan D'Alessandro of Bergen County, who was murdered by a neighbor after delivering Girl Scout cookies to him. See Allison Garvey, "It's Deja Vu for Mother of a Scout Slain in 74," Asbury Park Press. 8 October 1997, p 1.

[68] Arpie Nakashian, "PTA Reacts to Criticism as More Schools Ban Selling," Asbury Park Press, 2 October 1997. p. 1.

[69] Arpie Nakashian and Lisa Fried, "All Fund Raisers Put On Hold by School Officials and PTA Criticized," Asbury Park Press. 30 September 1997, p. 1.

[70] Donna Murphy Weston, "Town Shaken by Suspect's Identity," The Bergen Record. 2 October 1997, p. 1.

[71] Allison Garvey, "K-9 Unit Makes Grisly Discovery in Wooded Area in Jackson," Asbury Park Press. 30 September 1997, p. 1.

[72] Allison Garvey and Warren Woodberry, "No Clear suspect Yet, Source says; Police Search Nearby Home." Asbury Park Press, 1 October 1997, p. 1.

[73] Carol Gorga Williams, "Tale of Teen's Torment," Asbury Park Press. 31 October 1997, p. 1.

[74] Ibid.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie's Lonely, Violent Childhood," Asbury Park Press. 18 April 1999, p. 1.

[77] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie's Lonely, Violent Childhood," Asbury Park Press, 18 April 1999, p. l.

[78] Steve Chambers, Brian T. Murray and Josh Margolin, "Angry Mother of Defendant Is Taken From Court," The Star-Ledger, 15 April 1999, p. 1.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Angela C. Alien and Andy Geller, "Jersey Teen: How I Strangled 11-Year-Old," Asbury Park Press. 19 March 1999, p. 1.

[81] Allison Garvey, "Jackson School Board Lifts Fund-Raising Ban with Conditions," Asbury Park Press. 16 October 1997, p. 1.

[82] Allison Garvey, "K-9 Unit Makes Grisly Discovery in Wooded Area in Jackson" Asbury Park Press. 30 September 1997, p. 1.

[83] Ibid.

[84] Brian T. Murray, "An Ending that Offers Little Solace," Star-Ledger. 2 October 1997, p. 1; Mike Kelly, "Wounds Bound in Ribbon," Bergen Record. 6 October 1997, p. 1; Allison Garvey, "School Garden to Grow as Memorial to Slain Boy," 23 December 1997, p. 5. 85 Brian J. Karem, Innocent Victims (New York: Kensington Publishing Corp., 2001), p. 37.

[85] Brian J. Karem, Innocent Victims (New York: Kensington Publishing Corp., 2001), p. 37.

[86] Cori Anne Matoli & Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzies Messages says Get Help If Needed," Asbury Park Press. 11 April 1998, p. 1.

[87] Ibid.

[88] Allison Garvey, "K-9 Unit Makes Grisly Discovery in Wooded Area in Jackson," Asbury Park Press. 30 September 1997, p. 1; Carol Gorga Williams, "Boy, 15, to be prosecuted as adult in  laying of 11-year-old," Asbury Park Press, 19 February 1998, p. 1. For an in-depth understanding of child murder and its various definitions see, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying, 3rd ed., 2003.

[89] Brian Kladko, "Several Schools Shut the Door On Selling By Pupils," Asbury Park Press. 1 October 1997, p. 1.

[90] Terri Somers, "Bill Extending Megan's Law Inappropriate; NJ Transit Needs Funding Formals," Courier News, 16 March 2001, p. 14.

[91] Elaine Silvestrini, "Manzie Won't Testify Against Simmons," Asbury Park Press. 14 July 1999, p. l.

[92] Elaine Silvestrini, "Judge Tosses 7 of 9 Charges," Asbury Park Press. 22 July 1999, p. 1.

[93] Office of the State of New Jersey Legislative Services, Civil Commitment Act Concerning Sex Offenders, Assembly No. 1615, 208th Legislature, 1998.

[94] Laura Manserus, "A Sex Offender who Served His Time Fights Civil Detention," New York Times, 6 January 2002, p 25.

[95] Cori Anne Natoli, "Slaying Suspect Sought Help From Child Abuse Group," Bergen Record, 5 April 1998, p. 3.

[96] Office of the New Jersey Attorney General, New Jersey Law Enforcement Officers' Reference Manual: Handling Juvenile Offenders or Juveniles Involved in a Family Crisis. 2000.

[97] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzies Want to Speak Out at Judge's Tenure Hearing," Asbury Park Press. 21 June 1999, p. 3.

[98] Carol Gorga Williams, "Manzie Diagnosis Focus of Lawsuit," Asbury Park Press, 1 October 1999, p. 1.

Bibliography

I. PRIMARY SOURCES

A. Government Documents

New York State Department of Corrections, New York State Sex Offender Registry of Registerable Offenses, 1986.

Office of the New Jersey Attorney General. Statute of Limitations for Crime of Sexual Assault Eliminated N.J.S.A. 2C:1-6. 24th Legislature, 1996-1997 sess., 1996.

Office of the State of New Jersey Legislative Services. Megan’s Law Statute P.L. 1994:1-1, Chapter 132, 23rd Legislature, 1994-1995 sess., 1994.

_____. Civil Commitment Act Concerning Sex Offenders. Assembly No. 1615, 208th Legislature, 1998.


B. Newspapers & Periodicals

The Asbury Park Press (1997-2002)

The Bergen Record (1997-2002)

Courier News (2001)

Long Island Voice (1999)

Newsweek Magazine (1997)

New York Post (1997)

The New York Times (1997)

Star-Ledger (1996-2001)

Time Magazine (1997)


C. Books & Pamphlets

New Jersey Governor’s Office. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Professional’s Guide to Identification, Reporting, Investigation and Treatment. Trenton, N.J.: The Task Force, 1988.

Office of the New Jersey Attorney General. Child Abuse and Neglect in New Jersey 1997-1998: The New Jersey Division of Youth and Family Services. Trenton, N.J.: The Division of Youth and Family, 1998.

_____. New Jersey Law Enforcement Officers’ Reference Manual: Handling Juvenile Offenders or Juveniles Involved in a Family Crisis. 2000.


D. Websites

Manzie, Sam. “The Sam Manzie Personal Webpage.” N.d. <http://members.aol.com/ XSpaceboyl/sam.html> (13 October 1996).


II. SECONDARY RESOURCES

A. Books

Brongersma, Edward. Male Intergenerational Intimacy: Historical, Socio-Psychological, and Legal Perspectives (Toronto: Harrington Park Press, 1993).

Dove, Shawn Michael. The Hidden Monster: Pedophilia (New York: First Books Library, 2003).

Hammil-Zabin, Amy. Conversations with a Pedophile: In the Interest of Our Children (New York: Barricade Books, 2003).

           Karem, Brian J. Innocent Victims (New York: Kensington Publishing Corp., 2001).

Prendergast, William E. Treating Sex Offenders: A Guide to Clinical Practice with Adults, Clerics, Children, and Adolescents (New York: Haworth Press, 2003).

Silverman, Jon. Innocence Betrayed: Paedophilia, the Media, and Society (Los Angles: Polity Press, 2003).

Swisher, Kara. How Steve Case Beat Bill Gates, Nailed the Netheads, and Made Millions in the War for the Web (Toronto: Random House. 1999).


B Journal Articles

Burleigh, Nina. “The Killer Next Door: The Murder ofE. Wemer in Jackson Township, N.J.” New York Journal 30 (1997): 52-57.

Fejes, Fred. “Murder, Perversion, and Moral Panic: The 1954 Media Campaign Against Miami’s Homosexuals and the Discourse of Civic Betterment.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 9 (1999): 305-347.

Ohi, Kevin. “Molestation 101: Child Abuse, Homophobia, and the Boys of St. Vincent.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 6 (2000): 12-33.

Petersen, Charles. “Another Frontier: Law and Sexuality in the American West.” Journal of the West 4 (2002): 212-237.

Robertson, Stephen. “Separating the Men from the Boys: Masculinity, Psychosexual Development, and Sex Crime in the United States 1930s-1960s.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 56 (2001): 20-46.

_____. “Age of Consent Law and the Making of Modem Childhood in NYC 1886-1921.” The Journal of Social Science 35 (2002): 781-798.

C. Dictionary & Encyclopedia Entries

American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., 1994.

          MacMillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying, 3rd ed., 2003.

D. Websites

Brass, Perry. “Steve Simmons: The Sam Manzie Case,” <http://www.gaytoday.badpuppy.com/garchive/interview/040599in.htm> (November 1997).

Douglas, John. “John Douglas’ Professional Background,” <http://www.apbnews.com/crimesolvers/douglas.html> (2000).

Jim Eisenreich Foundation for Children with Tourette’s Syndrome, <http://www.tourettes.org> (2001).

 


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